The Sun, the Star Closest to the Earth

Universay – Have you ever been close but not considered? The sun often shines. When we talk about stars, we usually ignore the fact that the next star of our earth is the sun, not the Alpa Centauri.

The sun is not only the dominant object in the sky during the day, it is also the source of almost all the light and energy through which life on earth can continue to exist and evolve. Moreover, the sun offers astronomers an excellent opportunity to deepen their understanding of the stars due to their proximity.

The most important thing: the sun is a star

Do you know for the first time that the sun is a star? Not good, no problem. We often assume that stars appear at night. In fact, the sun is one of the billions of stars that we observe at night.

It is only that the distance to the sun is closer to the earth than to other stars. As a result, the bright light illuminates the earth so that the earth has “daylight” when the sun appears in the sky.

The sun is by far the largest object of our solar system, the sun is 99% part of it. He is not the biggest star in the universe. Observations by astronomers on other stars in the universe show that the sun is classified as “normal,” ie, mediocre.

Why is this normal? Because the sun has a mass (2 × 10 ^ 30 kilograms), a brightness (4 × 10 ^ 20 megawatt) and a temperature (5,500 degrees Celsius), which are in fact classified as the average universe of the star type. It is also one of the approximately 100 billion similar Milky Way stars, so it’s not that special.

The sun can shine through a process known as the thermonuclear fusion reaction, which converts hydrogen into helium in the core. The process of converting hydrogen into helium, which is still taking place in the heart of the sun, indicates that it is a star type of the main series.

The proximity of the sun to the earth allows astronomers to study phenomena that are too small or too weak in the sun’s atmosphere when they are observed in a star other than the sun.

Some of the most interesting and complex features observed by the sun are sunspots. First discovered in 1613 by Galileo Gelilei with his telescope, sunspots were a feature that appeared on the surface of the sun in the form of small black spots.

Black spots on sunspots are known as lower temperatures than those in the area, which is around 3700 degrees Celsius. A sunspot can usually form and last around a month. They are caused by a temperature imbalance, which is generated by a strong magnetic field on the sun.

Observations also show that the number of sunspots and their position on the surface of the sun during the 11-year solar cycle seems to vary semi-periodically. At the beginning of the cycle, sunspots can form in a range of 30 degrees from the equator of the sun.

In the middle of the cycle the number of observable sunspots is very large and they usually accumulate within a range of 15 degrees from the equator of the sun. It is said that the cycle ends when the number of sunspots observed is lower and forms exactly on the sun’s equator.

The sun is expanding? Will it explode?

Yes, it is true that the sun grows slowly and it becomes clear what is normal for a star. The expansion of the sun is based on the fusion of hydrogen to helium in its core, as described above.

Due to the melting process, the amount of hydrogen in the solar core gradually decreases. So that energy production runs quickly, the temperature and the density in the heart of the sun rise. The effect is that the generated energy will increase the solar surface over time.

Later, when the sun is completely hydrogen in their hearts (about 5 billion years), the fusion reaction stops. The core of the sun contracts (because it produces no energy) and then heats up.

What happened next? When it is warm enough, the sun burns carbon helium (another nuclear reaction). At this point the sun is no longer in the star series of the main series, but a so-called giant red star, and the radius is large enough to devour the earth!

The huge red phase is not always supported by the sun, because helium is missing in the core. In this case, the kernel shrinks again, but is never hot enough to burn other elements into other elements.

Because there is no more energy afterwards, the sun gives its own appeal, it loses its outer layer and leaves its remaining core in a white dwarf, a kind of dense star that is very small (the size of the earth).

When the solar core becomes a white dwarf, it no longer produces energy and cools slowly. The outermost layer of the sun that it throws is transformed into a so-called planetary nebula.

The sun will not explode in a supernova event. The mass of the sun is too small to explode in a supernova. A star must be at least 8 times the sun and perhaps 15 times a supernova at the end of its life.

It is the sun, the star that is closest to our earth, which we often forget, is a star. Perhaps when the sun dies and we leave later, we notice that their existence was very important

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